Gardner

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Gardner Surname Genealogy

The
surname Gardner derived from the northern French
gardin and was introduced to Britain after
the Norman invasion of 1066. It was an
occupational
name.
The function of the gardiniere
in medieval times was a very
important one. He was responsible for
the kitchen garden, which provided almost the only source of fresh food
and
herbs, and hence played a critical part in maintaining the health of
the
household. The use of the word gardener,
referring to someone who tended ornamental lawns and flower beds, was a
later
application.That may not be the only derivation.
Other sources have claimed that the name
was derived from the Saxon words gar,
meaning “a weapon,” and dyn
meaning “sound or alarm,” combined with the termination
“er.”

Gardner and Gardiner are the main spellings today, although there are other variants. Gardiner was probably the earlier spelling that was later shortened to Gardner.

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Gardner Resources on
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Gardner Ancestry

England.
Early
sightings of the surname in 1273 placed it in
eastern England – Geoffrey le Gardener
in
Oxfordshire, Ralph le Gardiner in Huntingdonshire,
and William le Gardiner in Lincolnshire.

Eastern England. Oxfordshire has
sometimes been cited as a possible origin
of the Gardiner surname. Various de
Gardinis
and Gardiners were recorded in the county in the mid-13th century. William Gardiner, born there in 1451, was a
cloth
merchant before enlisting as a mercenary in the campaign of Henry
Tudor. It was said that he slew Richard
III with a pollaxe at the Battle
of Bosworth Field in 1485.

“Richard’s
horse was trapped in
the marsh where he was slain by one of Rhys Thomas’ men, a commoner
named William
Gardiner.”


Other early Gardiners
hailed from Suffolk. Their numbers included:

  • Sir Richard
    Gardiner

    who became Lord Mayor of London in 1478. He grew up in Exning
    near
    Newmarket.
  • Stephen Gardiner who served as
    the English
    Lord Chancellor in the 1550’s during the reign of Queen Mary. He
    was born
    in Bury
    St. Edmunds where his father John was a cloth merchant.
  • and
    Sir
    Robert Gardiner who held the post of Lord
    Chief Justice of Ireland in the early 1600’s. He came from the
    small
    village of Shimpling
    .

The Tudor writer William Camden, referring of Stephen Gardiner, averred
that “his name was not Gardener as the English pronounce it, but
Gardiner with the French accent and therefore a gentleman.”


Elsewhere
. Sir
Osbern Gardiner, probably a Norman knight, was recorded at Oral manor
in Wigan parish in Lancashire in the 12th century. Legend has it
that he joined the Second Crusade and won his crest at Acre in 1191 by
chopping through the shoulder of a Saracen who was about to kill
Richard the Lionheart. Later Gardiners were to be found at Otley
and nearby at Pilling and Garstang. Whether Sir Osbern himself
was the
antecedent of subsequent Gardiners in Lancashire, Yorkshire, or even in
Scotland is based more on speculation than on proven fact.

Aldringham Hall near Ulverstone in Lancashire was the seat of one
Gardner family for nigh on five hundred years. Gardners in fact
became quite numerous in Lancashire. Hugo Gardner was a burgess of Liverpool in the early
1600’s. His descendant Edmund Gardner
founded England’s first timber firm in 1748 for the import of hardwoods. The business prospered. Joseph
Gardner helped develop Blundellsands as
a well-to-do suburb of Liverpool during the 19th century.

By the end of the 16th
century the Gardner name was also in the west country – in
Gloucestershire primarily but also in Somerset and Devon.

Gardiner-to-Gardner.
The shortening of Gardiner to Gardner began in the 17th century,
perhaps earlier in Lancashire. By the time of the 1881 census the
Gardner/Gardiner ratio in England was about 70/30, which is roughly
what it is today.

Scotland. The
Gardiner name in Scotland dates from the 15th century. The
best-known Gardiners were those at Bankton House near Edinburgh.
Captain Patrick Gardiner had been killed fighting abroad in Germany in
the 1690’s. His son James became a Colonel in the British army
and he also died in combat, this time at Prestonpans in 1745 fighting
against Bonnie Prince Charlie. The battle took place very near
Bankton House and he died of his wounds within sight of his own home.

Ireland. Gardner or
Gardiner is an English implant, found either in Dublin or the Ulster
counties.

William Gardner
from Lancashire commanded a company within the walls of Londonderry in
the siege of 1689. His grandson Allen from Coleraine joined
the British navy and attained the high rank of Admiral during the
Napoleonic wars.

Luke Gardiner was probably of English origin, although he was described
as a “sturdy parvenu of Irish descent.” He was a successful land
developer in Dublin in the early 18th century, contributing much to the
Georgian look of the town. His Gardiners later became Viscount
Mountjoy and the Earl of Blessington. However, the first Earl
squandered his inheritance and died in Paris in 1829 at the age of 46.

America. Probably the
first Gardner to arrive in America was Richard Gardener, a seaman
on the Mayflower in
1620. But he died that year or soon after without issue.
Other Gardiners and Gardners followed, mostly into New England.

Two
early Gardner arrivals there have a large and distinguished descendant
list:

  • Thomas Gardner who came to Cape Ann in 1623 with his first wife
    Margaret and their three sons. He is considered by some to have
    been the first Governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. He was
    buried on Gardner Hill in Salem. Prominent Gardner descendants
    have been Thomas
    Gardner the patriot who fell at Bunker Hill in 1775 and the
    businessman Jack Gardner whose wife founded the Isabella Stewart
    Gardner Museum in Boston.
  • and Lion Gardiner from Scotland who came to Boston in 1635 and
    then settled in Long Island. He acquired Gardiners Island off Long Island
    in 1639 and this island has remained with his family ever since.
    Among his Gardiner descendants were New York state senator David
    Gardiner, whose daughter married President Tyler; and Winthrop
    Gardiner, the 14th proprietor of Gardiners Island who married the
    Norwegian figure skater and actress Sonja Henie.

Two other notable early New England families have been:

  • the
    Gardiners of Rhode
    Island. George Gardiner came to Newport
    in 1638 and was one of the early settlers of Rhode Island.
    George had thirteen children by two
    wives. A grandson John Gardiner was a
    Deputy Governor of the colony. Gar
    diner
    has been the preferred spelling
    in Rhode Island. They jokingly referred to the “blind Gardners”
    (those without an
    “i”) as those who left Rhode Island and spelt their name differently. The family history was recounted in Caroline
    Robinson’s 1919 book The Gardiners of
    Narragansett
    .
  • and
    the Gardners
    of Nantucket. They were seafarers who
    became a well-known whaling family. Their
    forebear was Thomas Gardner from Hampshire who had come to
    Massachusetts in
    1624 and settled in Nantucket in 1673. He
    remained on the island for the rest of his life, sailing
    ships from
    their port until his death in 1706. Later
    Gardners intermarried with other early families of Nantucket – the
    Coffins,
    Starbucks,
    Folgers and
    Macys. Their whaling heyday was the early 1800’s. Captain Edmund
    Gardner
    recounted many of his whaling adventures in his Journal.

Canada. Thomas
Gardner moved from Boston to Nova Scotia in the 1760’s after the defeat
of the
French. His descendants at Liverpool
were shipbuilders and privateers on the British side in the
Revolutionary War.

Archie
Gardner
was one of a number of Scottish Gardners who left
their homes near
Glasgow for a new life in Canada in the 1820’s. Many
of these Gardners were converted to the
Mormon faith. In fact 24 Gardners made
the journey from Warwick in Canada to Salt Lake valley in 1847.

South Africa. James Gardner from Kirkcaldy in Scotland came
to the Eastern Cape in the 1830’s as a soldier before staying on as a
road
engineer. Two of his wives died there
because of the harsh conditions and he himself was murdered in the
early
1850’s. His children were found
wandering in the bush and were taken into missionary care.
The eldest son Charles married and became a
farmer in Barkly East in the Eastern Cape.

Australia and New Zealand. Among the Gardners arriving there during the
19th century were:

  • Andrew
    Gardner from
    Scotland who was transported to NSW in 1818 for the crime of “the sale
    of
    spiritous liquor.” On getting his ticket
    of leave, he was engaged in the building of The
    Scotch Thistle Inn
    at Blackheath.
  • William
    Gardner who came with his family from
    Fermanagh in Ireland to NSW in the early 1840’s.
  • two
    Gardners families from Hampshire – George
    and his wife Harriet in 1853 and John and his wife Jane in 1856 – who
    came to
    NSW on an assisted passage scheme. The
    documents suggest that the Gardners could neither read nor write.
  • John
    Gardner and his wife Margaret from Scotland who came to New Zealand in
    1862 and settled in Glorit outside Auckland at the Mataia
    homestead. Their descendants are still living there.
  • and
    the Gardner family from Kent
    who
    came to New Zealand in stages between 1876 and 1883.

Frank
Gardner from
Gloucestershire had enlisted in the Royal Navy as a young man and seen
service at
a number of trouble spots around the world.
Soon
after his arrival in Australia in 1861, he joined the Newcastle
Naval Brigade where he rose to the post of commander, retiring after
forty
years of service as one of the oldest officers in the Australian Naval
Reserve. In 1916 he presented the city
of Newcastle with an Anzac memorial monument for the fallen at Gallipoli
.


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Gardner Miscellany

If you would like to read more, click on the miscellany page for
further stories and accounts:


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Gardner Names

Sir
Robert Gardiner

was an English-born judge who was a trusted political advisor to both
Queen
Elizabeth and James I and held the office of Lord Chief Justice of
Ireland for
eighteen years.

Erle Stanley Gardner

was an American writer best
known for his Perry Mason detective stories.
Ava Gardner was a well-known Hollywood actress
of the 1940’s and 1950’s.

Select Gardners/Gardiners Today

  • 62,000 in the UK (most numerous
    in London)
  • 58,000 in America (most numerous in California)
  • 39,000 elsewhere (most numerous in Australia)

 

 

 

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