McCarthy Surname Meaning, History & Origin
Carthach, a personal name
meaning “loving.” The name is Irish
rather than Scottish despite the fact that the “son of” prefix is mac rather than the more common o.
forms extant, including Carthy and Carty. Another variant,
McCartney, comes from a Scottish family founded by Donal, a grandson of
the first McCarthy king of Desmond.
McCarthy Resources on
- McCarthy Family History. McCarthy history in
Ireland and elsewhere.
- Genealogy of the McCarthy Family. McCarthys in South
- McCarthy DNA Project.
McCarthy surname study.
The origin of
the MacCarthy clan begins with Carthach in the 11th
century, a rival to the semi-legendary Brian Boru. Carthach’s
son, Muiredach mac Carthach, was the first to assume the name of
MacCarthaigh. This family, driven out of Tipperary,
established themselves as the leading clan in Munster. The
of Desmond can be traced from 1118 to 1596.
MacCarthys divided over time into four main branches:
- MacCarthy Mor in south Kerry
- MacCarthy Duhallow in northwest
- MacCarthy Riabhach/Reagh in Carbery in southwest Cork
- and MacCarthy Muskerry on the Cork/Kerry border.
The MacCarthy Reaghs were said to have founded the monastery of
Timoleague in 1240. They had their principal seat first at
Kilbrittain castle and then at Springhouse near Bansha. This
Springhouse estate was considered at the time to be the largest
cultivated farm in Europe. Later these MacCarthy Reaghs regrouped
at Oakmount near Skibbereen.
It was the MacCarthy Muskerry who
built Blarney castle in 1446. Cormac MacCarthy put off Queen
Elizabeth’s demand for allegiance with his “fair words and soft speech”
– which was how the Blarney stone acquired its reputation for imparting
eloquence to those who succeeded in kissing it.
The MacCarthy families opposed the English
encroachments until the 17th century when, like the other Gaelic
they lost almost everything. The last of the MacCarthy Mors was
Finian MacCarthaigh, known to the English as Florence MacCarthy, who
spent the latter part of his life in custody in London whilst his lands
were distributed amongst his relatives and the English colonists.
MacCarthys managed to hold onto their lands at this time, but later
lost out because of their support for the Jacobite cause. Justin
MacCarthy founded the Irish Brigade in the service of the French
King; others left for America. And more McCarthys departed for
America and for Canada in the 19th century.
Even so, McCarthy remains a common surname in Ireland, with about half
of the McCarthys to be found in county Cork today.
Morty McCarthy’s book Dowtcha Boy
is an anthology of present-day Cork slang.
McCarthys in Early American History by Michael J. O’Brien was
published in 1968.
first arrivals would appear
to have been Charles and Owen McCartie. They came to Virginia in
1662, it is
thought from Kinsale in Cork, on
the Plaine Joane.
Dennis McCarthy was recorded in Old
Rappahannock county records in 1675 and Daniel McCarty in Westmoreland
county records thirty years later. Daniel and his
were prominent in Virginia local politics in the 18th and 19th
were McCarthy arrivals during colonial times into Maryland,
Pennsylvania, and New York. However, the largest influx was into
Thaddeus McCarthy first appeared in Boston records
in 1666. Captain William McCarthy was the best-known Boston
shipowner of his day. The numbers of McCarthys in Massachusetts
increased markedly in the 19th century. McCarthys in the 20th
century included William McCarthy who became
head of the Teamsters union in 1988.
Heading West. A
number of McCarthys headed West. Eugene McCarthy for example, a
contractor during the construction of the Northern Pacific railroad,
moved to Montana. His son helped to map the Glacier National
Park. Two well-known 20th century politicians with roots in the
Midwest were Senator Joseph McCarthy from Wisconsin and Senator Gene
McCarthy from Minnesota.
Canada. McCarthys who
made it to Canada in the first half of the 19th century included:
- Timothy and Ellen McCarthy from Cork who settled in Nepean
township, Ontario in 1823.
- Michael and Catherine McCarthy
from Limerick who settled in Bathurst, New Brunswick in
1828 (their descendants later moved to
- Timothy and Jane McCarthy from Cork who settled in Port Neuf,
Quebec in the 1830’s.
and Abigail McCarthy from Cork who settled near
Peterborough, Ontario in 1838.
The most successful turned out to be D’Alton McCarthy of the McCarthy
Reaghs who had arrived
in Canada in 1845. He made his
reputation as a barrister and Queen’s Counsel. His son moved
fledgling legal practice to Toronto in the late 1870’s. It is now
McCarthy Tetrault, Canada’s premier law firm.
South America. John and
Mary McCarthy and their five children had emigrated from Ireland to
Argentina on the SS Dresden
in 1889. Their descendants, members of the Argentine Makarte
family, later served with distinction on Irish merchant vessels during
World War Two, something that was recently acknowledged by a ceremony
at the Irish embassy in Buenos Aires.
England. Fewer McCarthy
numbers crossed the Irish Sea to England than crossed the
Atlantic. Those who did settled in
either London or Lancashire.
Two who made it in
London in the early 20th century were Lillah MacCarthy, a popular
dramatic actress of her day, and Sir Desmond MacCarthy, a London drama
critic. More recently, the McCarthy family, originally from
county Clare, have been one of the great cornerstones of Irish music in
Australia. Many of the
Irish sent to Australia in its early years were political
prisoners. Denis McCarthy, for instance, was transported to
Tasmania, following his
capture during the 1798 rebellion. When he drowned in mysterious
circumstances twenty years later, the Hobart
Town Gazette described him as “a man with a speculative turn who
had been the owner of three vessels and had acquired considerable land
and other property.”
Another who prospered then was James McCarthy. His early history
is uncertain. But in 1804 he received a land grant at Cranebrook
in the Penrith region of NSW. He proved very adept at farming the
land; while his home became a center for Catholic services. His
name lives on locally in the McCarthy Catholic College.
A later arrival, but also revered in the Catholic community, was Dr.
Charles McCarthy who emigrated to Sydney in 1884. He was a
surgeon, physician to Cardinal Moran, and also, during his time in
Australia, an accomplished painter and sculptor.
Select McCarthy Miscellany
MacCarthy Origins. McCarthy, a variant of MacCarthy, means “son of love” and is the most common
surname in Ireland which uses the prefix Mc or Mac (son of).
The origin of the name began with Cartach an Eoganacht Chaisil, a king
who died in 1045 in a house fire deliberately started by one of the
Lonergans. Cartach was a contemporary and bitter rival of Brian
Boru. The McCarthy clan were pushed out of their traditional homelands
of the Golden Valley in Tipperary by the expansion of that sept in the
middle of the 12th century.
Cartach’s son used the appellation Muireadhach mac Carthaigh. Muireadhach died in 1092. His sons, Tadhg and Cormac, adopted MacCarthy as a proper surname.
MacCarthy Kings of Desmond
|1118-1123||Tadgh I||eldest son of Muiredach|
|1123-1138||Cormac III||his brother|
|1138-1143||Donogh III||his brother|
|1143-1185||Dermod I||his nephew|
|1185-1206||Donal I||his son|
|1206-1207||Fingen IV||his brother|
|1207-1229||Dermod II||son of Donal I|
|1229-1247||Cormac IV||his younger brother|
|1247-1252||Donal II||his younger brother|
|1252-1261||Fingen V||his son|
|1261-1262||Cormac V||his younger brother|
|1262-1302||Donal III||son of Cormac IV|
|1302-1306||Donal IV||his son|
|1306-1310||Donogh IV||his brother|
|1310-1326||Dermod III||son of Donal IV|
|1326-1359||Cormac VI||his brother|
|1359-1390||Donal V||his son|
|1390-1428||Tadgh II||his son|
|1428-1469||Donal VI||his son|
|1469-1503||Tadgh III||his brother|
|1503-1508||Donal VII||his son|
|1508-1516||Cormac VII||his brother|
|1516-1558||Donal VIII||his son|
|1558-1596||Donal IX||his son|
The Fate of Poets. Diarmaid MacCarthy of Cork was probably a graduate of the famous Blarney Academy of Poetry of which he later became president. Alas, the 17th century was a cruel time for the arts. The “Wild Geese” had fled and there was little money or regard for poets.
When Diarmaid’s horse died, there was no patron to pay for replacing it
and so he was prevented from travelling. He wrote a tragic poem
about his fate, a fate shared by all of the hereditary poets at the end
of the Gaelic era, including his kinsman Eoghan MacCarthy, also of
Cork, a prolific poet in both Irish and English.
Daniel McCarty in Virginia. A plaque in the old courthouse in Warsaw, Richmond County, lists the
names of both Daniel and his father Dennis McCarty as being among the
first prosecuting attorneys of that county.
Daniel McCarty is buried in the old Yeomico church cemetery in
Westmoreland County. The following inscription on his tomb is
taken from an article by a Mrs. Elenor Griffith Fairfax in The Southern Churchman in 1888.
to the base of the right and east gable is the rocky foundation of a
vault, in size 15 by 18 feet. It is now a grassy mound with several
cedar trees growing upon it. Near the center of this bound is a
grey stone much defaced by time. It is only after repeated
efforts that I have succeeded in marking out the inscription, which is
lyeth the body of Daniel McCarty, who departed this life the fourth of
___ 1724 in the forty fifth year of his age. He was endowed with
many virtues and good qualifications, but the actions proceeding from
them bespeak their praise.
also lyeth the body of Thaddeus McCarty, youngest son to Daniel
McCarty, who died the 7th of February 1731 in the 19th year of his
The Historical Atlas of Westmoreland
County states that Daniel was born in 1679 in England, the son
of Dennis and Elizabeth McCarty. He was a captain in the colonial
militia, a sheriff in 1710, and a justice in 1714.
Francis McCarthy to Australia in 1821. Francis McCarthy was accused of “uttering unlawful oaths” in his native
Roscommon. This was a charge interpreted in the English courts as
“making political agitation” or “taking part in a seditious
conspiracy.” The sentence therefore was harsh – 14 years
He had been tried and convicted in Cork and was then led to a
blacksmith who fitted him with the standard four pound leg-irons, “the
badge of infamy and degregation riveted upon me.” He was then
confined to a hulk left over from the Napoleonic wars where he was
chained to a berth already occupied by rats, to await transportation on
the John Barry. He was
twenty six years old, for that period unusually tall (five feet eight
inches), with a shock of ginger hair and a bushy ginger beard.
One photograph of him in later life survives. After he had served
his sentence, he was described in the register of St. Mary’s Cathedral,
Sydney as “a laborer of ruddy face.” That he had been convicted
of a political crime and married an ex-convict servant girl “of dark
and pocked complexion” was considered at the time to be a further stain
on his character.
Daniel McCarthy, An Early Settler in Canada. Daniel
McCarthy had been an overseer of an estate in county Cork.
Forebears had tried unsuccessfully to make a life in Spain.
Daniel and his wife Abigail opted for Canada. They arrived there
in 1838 and moved to a homestead near Keene, southeast of Peterborough
acres they had been granted by the Crown were rocky and covered in
bush, some swampy as they were near the Indian river that flowed
through Keene. Their first priority was to build some sort of
shelter until their log house was ready. This was in the form of
a shanty near the Indian river. Legend has it that Abigail cried
and wanted to return to Ireland immediately.
was instrumental in having funds collected to build a Catholic church
in Keene, walking to Kingston with a petition to have such a church
built. The family donated some of the wood for the
construction. The church was heated by a box stove and lit by
coal oil lamps. There were sheds for horses at the back of the
church. The first pews were privately owned and some parishioners
brought their own chairs. Daniel took turns with the other men
sleeping in the church on occasion after it opened in 1856, in order to
protect it from the Cavan Blazers, an anti-Catholic group.
Gayle Nelson in her book Forest to Farm:
Early Days in Otonabee describes Keene as it was in 1839.
It had three taverns. Roger Bates had built a stone tannery near
the mill on the Indian river. A carding and shingle mill had just
opened on the river. A five shilling fine was levied on anyone
crossing the bridge in Keene faster than a walk, perhaps a comment on the condition of the structure.
William McCarthy, The Last of the Old-Style Teamsters
William McCarthy was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1919.
When he was fifteen, he stole a car and took Boston police on a
high-speed chase until he ditched the car near the offices of Teamsters
Local 25 and hid in the cab of a tractor-trailer cab. When the
driver returned, McCarthy talked him into taking him to New York
City. Two years later, he stole a blank baptismal certificate and
faked his birth date so that he could qualify for a chauffeur’s
license. He joined Local 25 and worked for Benjamin Motor Express.
In 1946, after ten years at the wheel, he became business agent for
Local 25, based in Boston, and its 7,000 members. He quickly rose
through the ranks, becoming president of the local in 1955 and a vice
president of the national union in 1969.
The Teamsters were a corrupt union by this time. Jimmy Hoffa
and other Teamster leaders would make strategic alliances with
organized crime in deals that benefited both the Mafia, who obtained
sweetheart deals, and the union leaders who received kickbacks and
other forms of assistance. Four of the union’s presidents were to
be indicted on criminal charges; three of them (including Hoffa) went
It was William McCarthy, the last of the old-style Teamster union
leaders, who signed the consent decree in 1989 settling a Federal
Government racketeering suit and allowing for a court-appointed trustee
to supervise the first direct election of union officers.
- Tadhg MacCarthaigh became the first king of Desmond (Cork and Kerry) in 1118.
- Thaddeus McCarthy, a prominent Irish bishop in the late 1400’s, was beatified by the
Catholic Church in 1896.
- Glenn McCarthy was a flamboyant Texan oil tycoon, often called “the king of the wildcatters.”
- Joseph McCarthy was the
American senator who hunted down communists in the 1950’s, giving rise to the term “McCarthyism.”
- Gene McCarthy was the
anti-Vietnam US Presidential candidate in 1968.
- Pete McCarthy was the author of
McCarthy’s Bar, a popular
travelogue of present-day Ireland.
- Cormac McCarthy is an American
novelist and playwright whose novel, No
Country for Old Men, was an Academy Award winning film in 2007.
Select McCarthy Numbers Today
- 10,000 in the UK (most numerous
- 32,000 in America (most numerous in Massachusetts)
- 61,000 elsewhere (most numerous in Ireland)
Select McCarthy and Like Surnames
The Irish clan or sept names come through the mists of time until they were found in Irish records such as The Annals of the Four Masters. The names were Gaelic and this Gaelic order was preserved until it was battered down by the English in the 1600’s.
Some made peace with the English. “Wild geese” fled to fight abroad. But most stayed and suffered, losing land and even the use of their language. Irish names became anglicized, although sometimes in a mishmash of spellings. Mass emigration happened after the potato famine of the 1840’s.
Some surnames – such as Kelly, Murphy and O’Connor – span all parts of Ireland. But most will have a territorial focus in one of the four Irish provinces – Leinster, Munster, Ulster, and Connacht.
Munster in SW Ireland covers the counties of Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary, and Waterford. Here are some of the Munster surnames that you can check out.
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