Murdoch Surname Meaning, History & Origin

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The name Murdoch comes from the old Gaelic words mur meaning “sea” and murchadh, “sea warrior,” and is
thought by some to indicate Norse origins.  The “ch” sound is not present in English.  When Murdochs migrated
to northern Ireland at the time of the Scottish plantations “Murdoch”
would often become “Murdock.”

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Murdoch Ancestry

Scotland.
The largest presence of the Murdoch name in Scotland has been in Galloway
in the southwest and, to a lesser extent, Moray in the northeast.

Galloway.  The
Murdochs of Cumloden in Galloway received their land, it is said,
as a grant
from Robert the Bruce

for services the family rendered.  The land stayed with the
Murdochs until 1738 when it was sold to pay
off debts. Their family history was recounted in
T.M.Fallow’s 1904 book, A Short
History of the Family of Murdoch in Cumloden
.

A Murdoch
family from Dalbeattie in Galloway, starting with James and following
with Samuel, were sea captains in the 19th century.
As death was a constant risk at sea, it became a family rule that at
least one of the men should take a trade ashore.  The last of
these mariners was William Murdoch, First Officer of the Titanic, who
perished with his ship in 1912.

Perthshire.
A branch of the Cumloden family in Galloway established itself at
Gartincaber House in Perthshire in the mid-1600’s.  Murdochs
were pistol makers at Doune in the mid/late 1700’s.
Archibald Murdoch drowned in 1774.  His son William, believing
that he lived in the exact center of
Scotland, built a folly – a two-storey octagon tower – on the family
land in
1799.

“William scandalized his neighbors by
marrying his housekeeper Sarah Murdoch.  He died in 1805 at the
young age of 48.  His daughter Anne married John Burn of Coldoch.”

Their line became the Burn Murdoch line and they held Gartincaber House
until the 1960’s.  William Burn Murdoch was an intrepid travel
writer and explorer in the early 1900’s.

Morayshire
Murdoch roots are also in Morayshire on the northeast coastline.
The Murdoch name was to be found in the 18th century at Elgin and in
villages along the Spey river.  Alexander Murdoch was a farmer at
Kean farm in Duffus at that time and Peter Murdoch a customs house
officer at Fochsbers (his family later moved south to England).

Ireland.  There may have
been some Irish Murdochs from Murtagh before the Scottish intrusions in
the 17th century.  But most Murdochs (and Murdocks) in Ireland
came from Galloway in Scotland and arrived at the time of the
Protestant plantations in Ulster.

One family line in Forkhill,
Armagh traces itself back to these times.  Other Murdocks were to
be found in Belfast.  And one farming family near Dublin produced
the novelist Iris Murdoch.  Today there are roughly as many
Murdocks as Murdochs in Ireland.

America.  The early
Murdochs in America came mostly from Ireland and therefore had lost an
“h” and gained a “k” in their travels:

  • one Murdock family started
    with John Murdock in Pennsylvania in the 1740’s and later moved onto
    North Carolina.
  • William Murdock from Belfast, who fought in the
    Revolutionary War, died in Pennsylvania in 1791.
  • meanwhile
    Hamilton Murdock
    and his family from Ireland had arrived in Charleston, South Carolina
    in 1768.

There were some Scottish Murdochs.  James
Murdoch was recorded as building a house near Kingston in upstate New
York in 1771.  Thomas Murdoch was a prominent bookbinder in
Philadelphia in the early 1800’s (his son became the well-known actor
James Murdoch).  And William Murdoch, a cabinet maker, came to New
Orleans with
his family in 1846.

These Murdochs in America often became
Murdocks,
and combined with the Murdock Irish arrivals, the Murdock name became
the predominant one in America.

Canada.  Both Murdocks and
Murdochs settled in Canada, the Murdochs here somewhat outnumbering the
Murdocks.  Among the Murdock arrivals were:

  • James, John and Ellen Murdock from county Mayo in Ireland to
    Ottawa in the mid 1830’s.
  • Michael Murdock and his family
    from Derry to Dundas county, Ontario in the late 1830’s.

The first Murdoch arrival in Canada was in fact a ship, the Murdoch, which brought 100 German
immigrants to Nova Scotia in 1751.

Just over one hundred years
later (in 1854), two Murdochs arrived in St. John, New Brunswick from
Paisley in Scotland, William Murdoch, aged 31, and George Murdoch (with
his parents), aged just four:

  • William was put in charge of a gas
    works but later made his mark in New Brunswick as a poet.
  • George set off west in his thirties and arrived in Calgary just as the
    railroad was arriving.  He became the first mayor of the new town
    of Calgary.

Australia.  The Murdoch
family in Australia began with the Rev. James Murdoch, minister at
Rosehearty near Aberdeen in Scotland.  Two of his sons, Walter and Patrick, migrated to Australia.  Walter arrived in Melbourne in
1884 and later settled in Perth where he became founding Professor of
English and the Chancellor of the University of Western Australia.

“In 1970, the Prime Minister, on
announcing the new university name in Western Australia as Murdoch
University said: ‘He is a distinguished scholar and a man of
letters.  His name gives dignity to our new university.’  A
few weeks later, at the age of 96, Sir Walter Murdoch died.”

His elder brother Patrick was a Presbyterian minister in
Melbourne.  His son was Keith Murdoch, who founded the
Murdoch newspaper empire, and his son Rupert Murdoch, the international
media mogul.

They were not the only Murdochs who came to Australia.  Others
were:

  • Dr. James Murdoch from Craigow
    near Edinburgh, who arrived in Tasmania with his family in 1822 and was
    followed by three of his brothers.  He was one of its early
    medical practitioners.
  • Gilbert Murdoch from Scotland,
    who came to the Victorian goldfields in the 1850’s.  His son Billy
    Murdoch became a well-known Australian cricketer.
  • James and Sarah Murdoch, who
    came via Derry to Victoria, also in the 1850’s.
  • James
    Murdoch from Stirlingshire
    who came with his family on the Trevelyn to South Australia in 1875.
  • another James Murdoch, who arrived from Aberdeen in 1881 but
    didn’t stay
    long.  Nine years later, he moved to Japan as an advisor there and
    devoted the rest of his life to studying that country’s history.
  • and John Smith Murdoch, who arrived from Glasgow in 1884.
    He became chief architect for the Commonwealth of Australia in 1919.

Two Murdoch families from
Glasgow came to Sydney in the 1830’s and 1840’s.  John and his
wife arrived on the Portland in
1838.  John’s life ended prematurely when he drowned near
Delegate, NSW in 1868, aged 48.   His brother George came
with his wife Agnes ten years later, in 1848 on the Castle Eden.   They first
settled in the Hunter Valley but later moved onto Cundle Plains.

 

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Murdoch Miscellany

Norse Origins for Murdoch.  In the ninth century much of Scotland (as well as other
parts of Europe) were under attack from Viking raiders.  Parts of
Scotland became part of Norway at this time, notably the Highlands and
Galloway in the southwest.  Many Norse settled there,
intermarrying with the Gaels and in Galloway becoming the so-called
“Gallgaels.”

Those among these societies who had Norse ancestry may well have been
known as murchadh, “sea
warriors,” particularly as the statistical evidence shows that the
largest incidence of Murdochs has been in Galloway and Moray where
there has been notable Norse settlement.

There is no positive proof of a Norse connection and so some think that
the surname Murdoch may simply have arisen to describe someone whose
trade was associated with the sea.

The Murdochs of Cumloden in Galloway.  These Murdochs are said to trace their descent from one Murdoch, who
rendered yeoman service to Robert the Bruce in his hour of need.
In the spring of 1307, the King of the Scots was hiding in the Galloway
hill country with a few hundred followers while King Edward’s troops
beset all the passes.

Bruce caused his men to separate into small companies so as to make
subsistence easier.  But he appointed a day when they were all to
muster at the hill now called Craigencallie on the eastern shore of
Loch Dee. Here, in a solitary cabin, dwelt a widow, the mother of three
sons, each by a different husband, and named Murdoch, Mackie and
MacLurg.

The King arrived first and alone at the rendezvous.  Weary and
half-famished, he asked the widow for some food and she gave him some
as it had been promised.

“From whom may that have been,” asked the King.

“None other than Robert the Bruce, “quoth the goodwife, “rightful lord
of this land, wha e’er gainsays it.  He’s hard pressed just now,
but he’ll come through, sure enough.”

This was good news to the King who made himself known at once and was
taken into the house and sat down to the best meal he had eaten in
days.  The three sons then returned and their mother straightway
made them do obeisance to their liege lord.  They declared their
readiness to enter his service at once.  The King, however, would
put their prowess as marksmen to the test before engaging them.
Two ravens sat together on a crag a bowshot off and the eldest son
Murdoch let fly at them and transfixed both with one arrow.
Mackie next shot a raven flying overhead and brought it to the ground
and the King was satisfied, although poor MacLurg missed his mark
altogether.

Many years later, when the widow’s words had been fulfilled by Bruce
coming to his own and being acknowledged King of the Scots, he sent for
the widow and asked her to name the reward she had earned by her timely
hospitality.

“Just gie me,” she said, ” you wee bit hassock o’ land atween Palnure
and Penklin (two streams flowing into Wigtown Bay).”

The King granted her request.   The “bit hassock,” being
about five miles long and three broad, was divided between the three
sons, from whom descended the Murdochs of Cumloden, the Mackies of
Larg, and the MacLurgs of Kiruchtrie.

Murdochs in Scotland.  The table below shows the current distribution of the Murdoch name in Scotland, according to telephone entries.

Telephone Entries Per 10,000
Argyll   150    10
Southwest   120    19
Clyde coast   380    16
Clyde valley   140    10
Glasgow   350    10
Central   160     8
Edinburgh   170     7
Borders    20     5
Tayside    90     6
Fife    70     6
Northeast   130    12
Aberdeen    90     9
Highlands    70     6
  Average     9

The southwest coastline of Scotland, including Galloway,
still has the highest concentration of Murdochs.

Reader Feedback – Robert Murdoch from Scotland to Massachusetts.  I’m looking for information on a Robert ‘Mordo’ Murdoch.  He was the son of Jackson Murdoch who was born in Strilingshire,
Scotland in 1663.  Robert came through
Plymouth and died in Newtown, Massachusetts.
I did find a baptismal record in Ayr, Scotland.  Any info
would help, just
wondering if you ran across anything related to them.

Regards, Roland Bechtel (ghog2121@gmail.com)

George Murdoch in the Canadian West.  George Murdoch had learnt his trade as a saddle and harness maker in
Chicago but had been forced to vacate that city after the Great
Fire.  By 1883 he was in Winnipeg.  He purchased there an ox
and wagon and set out for Fort Calgary, reaching the fort after ten
days’ trundling through hostile Indian territory.

He wrote in his diary that night:

“The view of the Rockies is
beautiful tonight. They seem about ten miles off, but are forty
five.”

The next day he built a shack outside the Mounties’
stronghold and hung a business sign: “Harness Maker.”  His
customers were the Mounted Police.  By living among the Blackfoot
Indians, he taught himself their language.  They called him
“Leather Man.”

George circulated the petition and raised the $100 that got the town
of Calgary incorporated.  The election that followed had more
fistfights than speeches.  When the dust settled, George was the
first mayor and they carried him shoulder high around the town in a
torchlight parade.

William Murdoch on the Titanic.  William Murdoch was the officer in charge on the bridge when an iceberg
was spotted at 11:39pm on 14 April 1912.  Murdoch is generally
believed to have responded by ordering “Hard a’starboard” and setting
the telegraph used to communicate orders to the engine room to “Full
Astern”.  To no avail, because 37 seconds after the iceberg was
sighted, it was struck by RMS Titanic.

When the order was later given to abandon ship, Murdoch was in charge
of the starboard evacuation and was last seen attempting to launch one
of the collapsible lifeboats.  It is not certain what became of
him, though by one account he was washed into the sea during the ship’s
final moments afloat.  Some of the many film and TV depictions of
the sinking of the Titanic
have shown Murdoch committing suicide as the ship sank, although there
is no evidence that he did so.

There is a memorial in his honor in his home of Dalbeattie in Galloway.

A William Murdock from Belfast was also on the Titanic and he by some fortune did
survive.  He claimed that he survived the sinking by jumping into
the water and then being “picked up” by a collapsible boat that he had
helped lower.  But this was not thought possible and there must
have been some other chain of events which ended with him in a
surviving lifeboat.

Reader Feedback – Murdochs from Scotland to South Australia.  My great grandfather Scotsman James Murdoch
migrated to South Australia on the ship Trevelyan
in 1875 with his wife Emily and three daughters Emily 8, Lucy 3, and
Alice a
babe in arms.  Seven other children were born there in South
Australia.

James next appeared in the 1880’s in Maitland
on the Yorke Peninsula with a business as a blacksmith and wheelwright.
He then sold everything and took up
farming,
which he did for the rest of his life.

James’s
father Colin was likely born at Gartincaber in Perthshire.
I’ve traced James’s ancestors back to a
Patrick Campbell of Dunderave and Inverchaggernay.  Patrick’s
daughter Beatrix married a Murdoch.

Kind regards, Anne Tichborne (annemtich@gmail.com)

A Broadside from Keith Murdoch.  Sir Keith Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch’s father, was a
prominent Australian journalist who started the Murdoch newspaper
empire.  He had been in London at the onset of World War One and
became irate at British treatment of him and his compatriots.
This broadside found its way to the desk of the Australian Prime
Minister of his day:

“The conceit and self-complacency of the red feathered
men are equalled only by their incapacity. Along the line of
communications, especially at Moudros, are countless high officers and
conceited young cubs who are plainly only playing at war.

What can you expect of men who have never worked seriously, who have lived
for their appearance and for social distinction and self satisfaction,
and who are now called on to conduct a gigantic war?

Kitchener now has a terrible task in getting pure work
out of these men whose motives can never be pure for they are unchangeably selfish.  Appointments to the general staff are made from motives of friendship and social influence.  Australians now loathe and detest any Englishman wearing red.”

PC Murdoch.  To many Scots PC (Police Constable) Murdoch, the fictional character in
the comic strip Our Wullie,
is “as weel kent as ony Murdoch!”  Our
Wullie
first saw light of day as a cartoon in The Sunday Post in 1936.  PC
Murdoch has been keeping an eye on the wee rascal all these years.

 

 

Select Murdoch Names

William
Murdoch was a Scottish
engineer and the inventor of gas lighting in the 1790’s.
James Murdoch, born in
Philadelphia, was one of the foremost actors in America in the 19th
century.
Sir Walter Murdoch was a
prominent Australian academic and writer after whom Murdoch University
in Western Australia is named.
Dame Iris Murdoch, from a Irish
farming family, was one of the foremost English novelists of the 20th
century.
Rupert Murdoch is the media
tycoon and head of the global media corporation, the News Corp.


Select Murdoch Numbers Today

  • 12,000 in the UK (most numerous
    in Glasgow)
  • 7,000 in America (most numerous
    in Pennsylvania).
  • 11,000 elsewhere (most numerous in Canada).

 

Select Murdoch and Like Surnames 

These are surnames from the Scottish Lowlands.  Some are clan names; some – like Gordon, Graham and Hamilton – have Anglo-Norman antecedents that crossed the border into Scotland; and some – like Douglas and Stewart – were very powerful in early Scottish history.  Stewart in fact became the royal Stuart line.

AbercrombieCrawfordGordonMenzies
AlexanderCunninghamGrahamMurdoch
BaxterDouglasHamiltonPollock
BoydDowHepburnSloan
BurnsEwingLennoxStewart
CochraneFergusonLivingstonWitherspoon

 

 

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