Nixon Surname Meaning, History & Origin

Select Nixon Meaning
Nick
is
a short form of Nicholas, itself derived from the Greek Nikolaos
meaning “victory people.”
Nickson or more commonly Nixon is its patronymic form. This surname appeared on both sides of the
Scottish/English
border
.

Select
Nixon Resources on
The
Internet

Select Nixon Ancestry. 

Scotland  Nixons, sometimes Nicksouns, were Scottish border reivers, one of a number that ran rampage during the lawless times of the 16th century.  Their base was Liddesdale in Roxburghshire. The earliest record of them was William Nycson occupying lands in Ermyldoune, Liddesdale in 1376.

The
hey-day of the Nixons as border
reivers

was the early/mid 1500’s when they stole cattle, fought amongst
themselves, and
burnt villages across the border.
Fingerless Will Nixon was said to have got his nickname after
one such a
raid.

However, by 1603 the Government had stepped in with its pacification
program. Many of the border chiefs and
their families were hunted down and killed.
Others were scattered, some being banished to the Scottish
plantations
in Ireland. By the time of the 1881
census the Nixon name had pretty much disappeared from the Scottish
borders.

England. To the south of Liddesdale
lay Cumberland and
Nixons were to be found there at Bewcastle (which included the township
of
Nixons) near Carlisle. Some outlawed
Nixons were hanged in Carlisle Castle.
Other Nixons remained in the area.

There
was a greater concentration of Nixons further south – around Cheshire,
north
Staffordshire, and extending into Lancashire.

John Nixon was born
around 1467 at Over parish near the Vale Royal Abbey in Cheshire. It was said that Robert Nixon, the
famous
prophesier of Cheshire, was his son, although no one really knows when
he was
born or lived.

John Nixon married Anne Pownall in Cheshire in 1604.
Two of their sons left as soldiers to
Fermanagh in Ulster before the later departures of three brothers to
America. Their line was covered in Jean
Cox’s 1970
book Nixon Family Memorials.

Among
Nixons in north Staffordshire were:

  • in Leek. William Nixon, born there in 1632, married Mary Tatton in
    1663. Joshua Nixon, a skinner, married
    Mary
    Challenor in 1705. His son Jonathan
    emigrated to Maryland in 1738.
  • in Biddulph. George Nixon
    was born in 1705 and a line of Nixons descended
    from him
    there.

The Nickson spelling was common in Lancashire.

John Nixon
, from a humble background, was three times mayor of
Oxford in the 1630’s
and 1640’s.

Ireland. Nixons
in Ulster
were
initially to be found
in county Fermanagh. Three Nixons – Adam
Nixon, John Nixon and Thomas Nixon – were among the twelve approved and
registered inhabitants of Enniskillen in the early 1600’s.
In the 1719 History of Fermanagh it was
reported:

“The
Nixons are of antiquity
in county Fermanagh since the reign of King James I.
Adam Nixon was a man of learning and sound
judgment. He was a Chancellor of the
diocese of Clogher and a Justice of the Peace in the county.”


Their home was at
Nixon Hall near Enniskillen until it burnt down in the late 1700’s. Alexander Nixon had married Mary Montgomery
in 1758, moved to county Monaghan and adopted the name of Montgomery. Meanwhile the Rev. Andrew Nixon of this
family had made his home at Nixon Lodge in Drumlane, Cavan. The family story was narrated in Mark Nixon’s
2015 book The Grass Really Was Greener.

Many
of the outlawed Nixons from the Scottish borders ended up in Fermanagh. Some later emigrated to America.
At the time of Griffith’s Valuation in the
mid-19th century, there were 93 Nixons
recorded in Fermanagh versus 50 in Tyrone and 38 in Cavan.

America. There were some Nixons
from England during the
colonial era, such as Zachariah Nixon from Nottinghamshire who came to
North
Carolina in 1684 and Jonathan Nixon from Staffordshire who came to
Maryland in
1738. But the majority of the Nixon
arrivals
were from Ireland.

Some did well from the outset.
Richard Nixon, a shipping merchant from Wexford, made his base
in Philadelphia
and prospered there, owning Nixon’s Wharf on the Delaware river. His son John took over the business after his
death in 1756. John became one of
the
leaders of the patriot cause in Philadelphia.
After the war he helped organize the Bank of North America and
served as
its first president.

Another American
patriot, this time from Leitrim, was Allan Nixon who had first arrived
as a
young boy in 1748. After the war he made
his home in Grimsby township, New Jersey where his uncle John from
Fermanagh
had earlier resided.

Three Nixon brothers from
Fermanagh had in fact arrived in America in the 1730’s, John settling
in New
Jersey, George in Virginia, and James in the Brandywine Hundred in
Delaware. James
Nixon was the ancestor of Richard M. Nixon
, the US President
from 1968 to 1974.

Other Nixons who came to America from Fermanagh were:

  • George
    Nixon who settled in Hopewell township in Bedford county, Pennsylvania
    sometime
    in the 1760’s.
  • John
    Nixon from Macguiresbridge who arrived in New Orleans around
    the year 1804. He made his mark as a
    lawyer in the city and later settled in
    Biloxi, Mississippi.
  • and
    William and Rachel Nixon, descended from the Nixons
    of Nixon Hall, who came with their family to New York in 1869.

Andrew
Nixon came to America from county Tyrone
in 1797, later settling in Adams county, Ohio.
He died in 1869. His youngest son
Andrew moved west, first to Iowa and then to California.
He drowned in Sunset Beach in 1877, aged 33.

Canada. Allen Nixon from
Ireland who had served in the British army was a Loyalist who
departed America for Canada in 1787. He
and his family were granted land in the Niagara peninsula where they
settled. His grandson Charles in 1853
built the Nixon homestead in South Dumfries which is still standing
today. Charles’s grandson Harry had a long
political
career, representing Brant from 1919 to 1961.
He was briefly in 1942 Premier of Ontario.

Also from Ireland much later
came the Rev. Harpur Nixon, the son of an Anglican minister Alexander
Nixon in
Donegal. A well-to-do gentleman, he came
to British Columbia with his wife and acquired Twin Islands off the
coast in
1912. But he was only to live there for
three years. A blast mysteriously
exploded in his face, severing part of his lower jaw, and he died soon
after.

Australia and New Zealand. Religion and painting rang in the family of
the Rev. Francis Nixon who came to Hobart from Kent in 1843 to be the
first
consecrated Anglican Bishop of Tasmania.
His father, the Rev. Richard Nixon, had been an enthusiastic
amateur
painter. His son George, who grew up in
their Runnymede family home in
Hobart, was an accomplished artist and draughtsman.

The Ramilles which arrived in Auckland, New Zealand in
1847 was full of
British soldiers and their families from the 47th Foot Regiment. Included in their number was Adam Nixon from
Cavan and his family. Adam’s son Edward
settled in Wanganui.

Another
ex-soldier in New Zealand was Marmaduke Nixon who arrived in Auckland
on the Cresswell from
India in 1852. He represented his local
district in Parliament until his death in 1864 when he was killed in a
skirmish
against the Maoris during the New Zealand wars.

 

Select
Nixon Miscellany

Nixon Border Reivers.  The Nixons of Liddesdale were described as having “many loose men” and were “a troublesome breed.”  They were an important part of the Armstrong-Elliot-Nixon-Croser reiver family axis. Although they lived in lands controlled by the Armstrong lairds, they were big enough to have other Border families under them.

Over time Nixons
were on both sides of the border with England and often crossed back
and forth,
either moving or raiding.

One Nixon
leader regaled in the name of Fingerless Will Nixon.
He was recorded around the year 1514 as burning
villages such as Haltwhistle and Hexham across the border in
Northumberland.   In 1529 it was said
that about thirty Nixons
and Crosers crossed the border into Bewcastle and carried off a herd of
cattle
from Thirwall.

In 1569 the situation in Liddesdale was apparently so bad that the
Scottish East and Middle Marches, in a memo to the Privy Council,
declared
themselves to be enemies to all the thieves of Liddesdale.
In March of that year some 4,000 men attacked
Liddesdale, devastating the whole valley.
A second attack occurred in October.

The tide had definitely turned by the early 1600’s.  Nixons were prominent among the three hundred declared outlaws by the Government.  Many were later hanged.  Some got off with a warning, others were banished to Ireland. 

Nixons in Ulster.  Edward MacLysaght wrote the following about Nixons in
his 1964 book Supplement to Irish
Families.

“Nixon is numerous in Ulster, especially in Antrim and
Fermanagh.  The most notable immigrant
family of the name settled in Fermanagh in 1609.  Fifty
years later we find Nixson listed in
Petty’s census as a principal name in two baronies of that county.

Testators of
the name are numerous in the prerogative wills from 1677 to 1811.  There were 27 Nixons, of which ten were of
Fermanagh or neighboring Ulster counties and nine of Dublin.”

John Nixon, Mayor of Oxford.  John Nixon was mayor of
Oxford three times in the 1630’s and 1640’s.  A contemporary Anthony Wood wrote:

“John Nixon, alderman of Oxford and
founder of the free school there, departed this life in 1662.   He was born in Bletchington the son of a
laborer there.  He built a free school in
1658 and when he died he left a special order in his will that no
privileged
man’s son should be educated there although he had got all of his
estate from
the University.  When he grew rich he was
a bitter enemy of scholars and, being a Justice of the Peace, put into
the
stocks a minister Thomas French for being drunk.  He
had a smooth flattering tongue and was
very hard in his dealings, hard and smooth like any slick stone.”

Nixon’s free
school lasted for 235 years, finally closing its doors in 1894.

Allen Nixon, Early Settler in Niagara.  Allen Nixon,
son of William and Katie Nixon, was born in 1758 and came to America
from
county Down in Ireland before the Revolutionary War.
He was of English descent and served as an
officer in the British army.  He settled in New Jersey where he
married Mary
Moore.

In
1787 Allen, with his wife and small son, joined other Loyalist
families and journeyed from New Jersey to Canada. He
was granted a lot in Grimsby township,
Niagara and he built his log cabin close to the shore of Lake Ontario.

Later,
when years of prosperity came, he erected a spacious farmhouse on the
upper
road.  He also built the stone shop which, during the War of 1812
and thereafter
for many years, was used as a blacksmith shop.
This is one of the earliest buildings still standing there, now
known
the Stone Shop Museum.

Nixons in Biloxi, Mississippi.  The Nixons were a prominent family in Biloxi since the time that John Nixon
had moved there from New Orleans in the late 1830’s.
He had arrived in that city from Ireland in
1805, shortly after it had become American territory under the
Louisiana
Purchase.

John
Nixon was a prominent lawyer in New Orleans and through these
connections came into the ownership of some 15,000 acres of swamp
timberland
around New Orleans.  In 1815 he married
Adelina Copp, the daughter of a lawyer who had been murdered ten years
earlier
in a New Orleans gambling house.  They
raised eight children.

By
the 1840’s the Nixons were firmly established in
Biloxi, owning the Nixon House Hotel there.
In 1848 John Nixon was entombed in the Biloxi city
cemetery.  Nixon
and Copp Streets in Biloxi were named after the family.

Of
the offspring, two sons
deserve note:

  • John
    W. Nixon moved to Georgia and was the US Navy and then
    Confederate Navy paymaster.
  • while
    Richard A. Nixon was sire to a prominent
    southern legal family.  A descendant
    Walter L. Nixon, the Chief US District Judge in Biloxi, was impeached
    by
    Congress in 1986 on perjury charges and sentenced to five years in
    prison. 

From James Nixon to Richard M. Nixon.  James Nixon
had arrived from Ireland to the Brandywine Hundred in Delaware sometime in the 1730’s.

His
grandson George Sr., born there in 1784, moved to Pennsylvania in
the early 1800’s and died there on July 3, 1863 at the time of the
Civil
War.  On that very day his son George Jr,
fighting on the Union side, was badly wounded during the Battle of
Gettysburg.  Taken to a field hospital,
he died of his wounds eleven days later.

George
Jr’s son Samuel moved to Ohio and was an earnest Methodist
there.  His son Francis made the move
west to Los Angeles in the early 1900’s.
Influenced by his wife Hannah, they moved to the Quaker
community of
Whittier where Richard Milhous Nixon was born in 1913.

Richard Nixon on his mother Hannah’s side was a
descendant of an early American
settler, Thomas Cornell, who had arrived in Boston in 1638.  This Thomas was an ancestor of Ezra Cornell,
the founder of Cornell University.

 



Select
Nixon Names

  • Fingerless Will Nixon was a leader of the Nixon border
    reivers in the early 1500’s. 
  • John Nixon was a patriot financier of the American
    Revolutionary War in Philadelphia. 
  • David Nixon was a stage magician and a popular personality on British TV in the 1950’s. 
  • Richard M. Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, elected in 1968 and had to resign in 1974.


Select Nixon Numbers Today

  • 20,000 in the UK (most numerous
    in Northern Ireland)
  • 13,000 in America (most numerous in Texas)
  • 14,000 elsewhere (most numerous in Canada)

 

Select Nixon and Like Surnames

The surnames found here cover most of the US Presidential surnames since the first President, George Washington.  Click on the surname below if you wish to know more of that particular President and his name.

AdamsHardingKennedyRoosevelt
BuchananHarrisonLincolnTaft
BushHayesMadisonTruman
CarterHooverMonroeTyler
ClintonJacksonNixonVan Buren
FordJeffersonPolkWashington
GrantJohnsonReaganWilson

 

 

Click here for return to front page

Leave a Reply